Verbs in Latvian are divided into three conjugations (alternative point of view is presented by A.Andronov from St.Petersburg State University). The the first conjugation belong all monosyllabic infinitive verbs and their compounds. To the second conjugation belong verbs which are derived with suffixes -ā, -ē, -o, -ī, -alē, -aļā, -elē, -uļo and has lengthening syllable in imperfect and in present tenses. To the third conjugation belong verbs which are derived with suffixes -ā, -ē, -ī, -inā and has lengthening syllable in imperfect tense. Besides there are irregular verbs: būt. iet, dot.
There are three simple tenses: present tense, imperfect tense and future tense and three perfect tenses: present perfect, past perfect, future perfect. Latvian verbs are used into five moods: indicative, imperative, conditional, conjunctive and debitive mood. The relations between tenses and moods are shown into following table.
For verb conjugation the three base forms, i.e., infinitive form, present stem and past stem are used. The following table shows correspondence between base stem and tense/mood.
|Stem||Modes and tenses, which are derived from the stem|
|Present stem||All modes of present tense, except conditional mood; imperative mood, debitive mood.|
|Past stem||Imperfect tense.|
|Infinitive stem||Future tense, present tense of conditional mood, present tense of conjunctive mood.|
Passive is not very common in Latvian.
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